Vacuum Solutions to Einstein's Field Equations
==============================================
Einstein's Equation
-------------------
Einstein's Field Equation(EFE) is a ten component tensor equation
which relates local space-time curvature with local energy and
momentum. In short, they determine the metric tensor of a spacetime
given arrangement of stress-energy in space-time. The EFE is given by
.. image:: ./_static/metric/EFE.PNG
:align: center
Here, :math:`R_{\mu\nu}` is the Ricci Tensor, :math:`R` is the
curvature scalar(contraction of Ricci Tensor), :math:`g_{\mu\nu}`
is the metric tensor, :math:`\Lambda` is the cosmological constant and
lastly, :math:`T_{\mu\nu}` is the stress-energy tensor.
All the other variables hold their usual meaning.
Metric Tensor
-------------
The metric tensor gives us the differential length element for each
durection of space. Small distance in a N-dimensional space is given
by :
* :math:`ds^2 = g_{ij}dx_{i}dx_{j}`
The tensor is constructed when each :math:`g_{ij}` is put in it's
position in a rank-2 tensor. For example, metric tensor in a spherical
coordinate system is given by:
* :math:`g_{00} = 1`
* :math:`g_{11} = r^2`
* :math:`g_{22} = r^2sin^2\theta`
* :math:`g_{ij} = 0` when :math:`i{\neq}j`
We can see the off-diagonal component of the metric to be equal to `0`
as it is an orthogonal coordinate system, i.e. all the axis are perpendicular
to each other. However it is not always the case. For example, a euclidean
space defined by vectors `i`, `j` and `j+k` is a flat space but the metric
tensor would surely contain off-diagonal components.
Notion of Curved Space
----------------------
Imagine a bug travelling across a 2-D paper folded into a cone. The
bug can't see up and down, so he lives in a 2d world, but still he can
experience the curvature, as after a long journey, he would come back
at the position where he started. For him space is not infinite.
Mathematically, curvature of a space is given by Riemann Curvature Tensor,
whose contraction is Ricii Tensor, and taking its trace yields a scalar
called Ricci Scalar or Curvature Scalar.
Straight lines in Curved Space
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Imagine driving a car on a hilly terrain keeping the steering
absolutely straight. The trajectory followed by the car, gives us the notion
of geodesics. Geodesics are like straight lines in higher dimensional(maybe
curved) space.
Mathematically, geodesics are calculated by solving set of differential equation
for each space(time) component using the equation:
* :math:`\ddot{x}_i+0.5*g^{im}*(\partial_{l}g_{mk}+\partial_{k}g_{ml}-\partial_{m}g_{kl})\dot{x}_k\dot{x}_l = 0`
which can be re-written as
* :math:`\ddot{x}_i+\Gamma_{kl}^i \dot{x}_k\dot{x}_l = 0`
where :math:`\Gamma` is Christoffel symbol of the second kind.
Christoffel symbols can be encapsulated in a rank-3 tensor which is symmetric
over it's lower indices. Coming back to Riemann Curvature Tensor, which is derived
from Christoffel symbols using the equation
* :math:`R_{abc}^i=\partial_b\Gamma_{ca}^i-\partial_c\Gamma_{ba}^i+\Gamma_{bm}^i\Gamma_{ca}^m-\Gamma_{cm}^i\Gamma_{ba}^m`
Of course, Einstein's indicial notation applies everywhere.
Contraction of Riemann Tensor gives us Ricci Tensor, on which taking trace
gives Ricci or Curvature scalar. A space with no curvature
has Riemann Tensor as zero.
Exact Solutions of EFE
----------------------
Schwarzschild Metric
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
It is the first exact solution of EFE given by Karl Schwarzschild, for a
limited case of single spherical non-rotating mass. The metric is given
as:
* :math:`d\tau^2 = -(1-r_s/r)dt^2+(1-r_s/r)^{-1}dr^2+r^2d\theta^2/c^2+r^2sin^2\theta d\phi^2/c^2`
where :math:`r_s=2*G*M/c^2`
and is called the Schwarzschild Radius, a point beyond where space and time flips
and any object inside the radius would require speed greater than speed
of light to escape singularity, where the curvature of space becomes infinite and
so is the case with the tidal forces. Putting :math:`r=\infty`, we see that the metric
transforms to a metric for a flat space defined by spherical coordinates.
:math:`\tau` is the proper time, the time experienced by the particle in motion in
the space-time while :math:`t` is the coordinate time observed by an observer
at infinity.
Using the metric in the above discussed geodesic equation gives the four-position
and four-velocity of a particle for a given range of :math:`\tau`. The differential
equations can be solved by supplying the initial positions and velocities.
Kerr Metric and Kerr-Newman Metric
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Kerr-Newman metric is also an exact solution of EFE. It deals with spinning, charged
massive body as the solution has axial symettry. A quick search on google would
give the exact metric as it is quite exhaustive.
Kerr-Newman metric is the most general vacuum solution consisting of a single body
at the center.
Kerr metric is a specific case of Kerr-Newman where charge on the body
:math:`Q=0`. Schwarzschild metric can be derived from Kerr-Newman solution
by putting charge and spin as zero :math:`Q=0`, :math:`a=0`.