# Dual Number¶

This module adds support for Dual Numbers and Forward Mode Auto Differentiation.

class einsteinpy.utils.dual.DualNumber(val, deriv)[source]

Bases: object

Numbers of the form, $$a + b\epsilon$$, where $$\epsilon^2 = 0$$ and $$\epsilon \ne 0$$. Their addition and multiplication properties make them suitable for Automatic Differentiation (AD). EinsteinPy uses AD for solving Geodesics in arbitrary spacetimes. This module is based on [1].

References

Constructor

Parameters:
• val (float) – Value

• deriv (float) – Directional Derivative